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The Process of Budgeting at Many Institutions of Higher Education Needs to Change

  • March 18, 2019

Refinements and Improvements to the Annual Budget Process

Due to the economic challenges many institutions of higher education are facing today, and the need to do more with less, budgeting is clearly a very critical item on the agenda. Addressing the problems associated with the budget process and having people working together towards common goals and results is a top priority. And if Budgeting is a Financial Application, why are 90% of user’s non-financial people?

It is not uncommon for the faculty and staff at an institution of higher education to view the budget process as something that is being “force-fed” from Finance. In order to improve this process, an interface for the faculty and staff should be developed and utilized that “walks them through” the budget process in such a manner that will be simple and yet very powerful. What would be helpful is the flexibility to budget the way they think about their areas of responsibility and allows them to budget on course with the strategic plan of the institution, including full disclosure and documentation of how and why they need what they are asking for in their budget.

Additionally, it is not uncommon for the Finance Department to be under staffed, or be lacking in the resource capabilities to manage all of the complex mechanical aspects of the budget process, as well as being able to readily provide analysis and decision support. The mere process of preparing budget templates, distributing them to the faculty and staff, collecting these spreadsheets, verifying their accuracy, aggregating and consolidating numbers and preparing for the budget review sessions is a cumbersome and manual process for the finance staff. Instead, the budgeting system in-place should alleviate most of those time-consuming mechanics, and allow for the finance staff to focus their time and attention on value-added decision support and analysis.

Budgeting for Special Initiatives and Projects

Because the budget process requires identifying spending for special initiatives or projects that may “cut across” various accounts or even departments, it can become very difficult to track properly for these items in the budget process, and it presents the possibilities for human error; especially when a budget for a project is not approved and someone, presumable someone in Finance, has to accurately “strip” or remove all of the spending out of all of the impacted accounts in the budget process, and then reconsolidate the results.

Having a budget system that can easily create budgets for special initiatives and projects, thereby facilitating an initiative-oriented budget review process would be an ideal process to have in place. This type of system should allow for faculty and staff to submit these initiatives and then have the budget system automatically determine the impact on the account structure. Without this type of budget system, if an initiative is not approved, someone has to go back into each of the associated accounts and try to remember how much that account was attributed to that initiative that was cancelled. This can cause inaccuracies and it will lack an audit trail.

Detailed Budgeting for Position Control

For many institutions of higher education, it is not uncommon to find that over forty percent (40%) of expenses relates to personnel costs (salaries & benefits). However salary and headcount planning are many times disconnected from the rest of the budgeting process. This can lead to confusion, rework, and a lack of fiscal awareness and understanding on the part of the department heads who actually manage the faculty and staff.

To help alleviate this problem, having detailed budgeting for “position control” should be in-place. Salaries and benefits are a special line item in the budgeting process. Therefore, the budget system should be able to handle half of the requirements with respect to “position control” – the budgeting half.

The budget system should allow for faculty and staff to plan headcount down to the individual level and let the “system” handle additions, reductions, raises, FICA, benefits and other.

Report Generation

In addition, timely and accurate reporting is always a challenge, and faculty and staff are heavily reliant on Finance for reports. Producing these reports can be time consuming and prone to error, especially if you are using Excel linked spreadsheets.

What is needed is both budget reporting and monthly management reporting. A good system should have pre-defined report formats, specific reporting, and fully user customized reporting that does not require the user to learn a new report writing environment. It should be user friendly and simple to use, while meeting the institution’s specific needs.

Budgeting and Forecasting for Business

  • March 18, 2019

Business purpose

The purpose of any budgeting or forecasting activity is to obtain a forward looking view of the business in order to facilitate resource allocation and decision making. The financial forecasts you prepare are a means to that end, not an end in themselves. You need to have this business focus in mind throughout the process.

Your starting point needs to be a strategic and operational discussion with the Board. A clear outline is needed of the plans for the business over the period in order to guide the detailed budgeting.

Without knowing what product lines are planned to be introduced or withdrawn; what facilities opened and closed; what major programmes of activity are in contemplation, preparation of a detailed financial plan is impossible.

Arising out of this discussion, you should be able to prepare an estimated ‘top down’ Profit and Loss for the period which will give you a target to aim at for the detailed budget.

Planning and organising

Once the strategic and operational guidelines are in place, you can then plan the budget process in detail. Issue a outline timetable to everyone involved.

Usually, you will start with a detailed sales forecast. You need to work closely with the sales team to define the products, customers, volumes and prices that are going to prevail.

This defines your level of activity for the purposes of building up your cost budgets.

You should then provide operational managers with raw data to build up their budgets. They will need to know the operational and strategic assumptions, inflation rates, sales volumes and data on performance in the current year. You should tightly define the format in which they send you information in order to make it as easy as possible to enter to your master budget model. You, or one of your team, should be available to support them in this exercise.

This should give you the basic information to prepare your operating profit and loss.

You then need assumptions on

· Borrowings & Interest

· Tax

· Capex & disposals

· Working capital movements

· Share issues

· Dividends

To allow you to work up a balance sheet and cash forecast.

Ensure you leave time in the plan for your team to pull the various components together and for at least one re-working of the budget if the original version is unsatisfactory.

Tools and systems

Everyone has access to Microsoft Excel and it is possible to build very effective budget systems with this software. You need to be particularly aware of the risks of spreadsheets and the ease with which errors can creep in.

Don’t exclude the use of specialist budgeting software. Well implemented, it can dramatically reduce timescales and improve accuracy. Look for a product that allows you to control different versions of the budget and that integrates well both with Excel and your main business software.

Budgeting: Consider a Less Labor Intensive Approach

  • March 18, 2019

For those of us that are in the personal finance business, the thought of putting a budget together, while not terribly exciting, is probably not considered a large task nor is it considered intimidating. We know what has to be done and most of us, I suspect, use the traditional method of determining expenses, line by line, and socking away the appropriate amount of money each month to make good on each of these expenses. Time consuming, no doubt, but not a problem for those of us that live in this world.

However, for those that have never budgeted or have a fear of detailed numbers or have a fear of what a structured budget might do to their lifestyle, the thought of creating a budget may be viewed as ominous or, at a minimum, restrictive. So, rather than engage in a practice which they know is probably good for them, they avoid “facing the music”, if you will, and fail to budget altogether.

In our ideal world, we financial counselors would have each of our clients working from a traditional detailed budget; showing expenses, due dates, allocated funds, accounting for fixed and variable expenses, etc., but, unfortunately, this methodology will not work for everyone. Some people just can’t live with the structure of a traditional budget or don’t have the necessary discipline (many would admit to this I’m sure) to log expenses on a routine basis and monitor their budget activity. So how else might we sell budgeting to those that are unwilling to adhere to a traditional budget?

A Plan B method for budgeting

Before entering into a budget, financial counselors would typically suggest that clients have goals established; short-term, possibly medium-term goals, and long-term goals. In doing so, of course, we would ask our clients to put away the funds necessary to achieve these goals via their budgets. In other words, there would be a line item in the budget that would indicate X number of dollars are being assigned to short-term goals this month and X number of dollars are being assigned to long-term goals such as retirement.

For the individual or partnership that finds the structure of a formal, documented budget to be overwhelming or impractical due to time constraints or where they lack interest in maintaining such a plan or they simply don’t have the discipline to manage a formal budget, there is hope in Plan B.

The Plan B budget involves two basic steps:

1) Goals are established and the cost to attain those goals is determined and money is put aside regularly to achieve these goals.

2) Expenses are determined and the appropriate amount of money is put aside regularly to ensure expenses are paid on time every time. Plan B budgeters are encouraged to pay bills no later than the budget due date via a bank billpay system.

The fundamental difference between the traditional budget and the Plan B budget I’m describing here, is that after I determine goals and expenses in Plan B, I don’t keep a running record of expenses and payments via a formal budget plan. While, as a personal finance professional, I don’t consider this the preferred way of budgeting, I view it as a reasonable alternative for those that don’t want to take the time to create and live by a traditional budget or are afraid of the structure and discipline that goes along with a traditional budget.

You and I may see a budget as putting oneself in a position to spend freely after expenses are paid and goals are funded. Oftentimes, clients will view a budget as inhibiting and something to be avoided, because of the perceived negative impact on their lifestyles.

A Plan B budgeter may determine that a reasonable long-term retirement goal is $1 million dollars in assets by age 65. The budgeter, in this instance, will set the amount of money aside each month that is necessary to reach this long-term goal. Since the budgeter may have avoided the traditional budget due to a shortage of knowledge and discipline where financial matters are concerned, hopefully this Plan B budgeter now puts retirement savings on automatic pilot and has the required dollars taken out of his/her paycheck each month and put against the pre-established $1 million dollar retirement goal.

IT Managers Need To Know: What Is A Master Budget?

  • March 18, 2019

Who out there likes to create budgets each year? Probably nobody – it takes a lot of work! I’ve got some good news for you, there might be a simpler way to do all of this. All too often IT managers sit down and try to create a single master budget. This can be very hard to do. I’ve got a better way for you to accomplish the same thing in a much shorter amount of time!

What Is A Master Budget?

So just exactly what is this master budget thing? It turns out that no IT team works on just one project during a year. What this means is that your job as an IT manager is instead of trying to sit down and create a single budget, you need to show some leadership and create a separate budget for each of the projects that your team will be working on.

The trick here is that the company doesn’t really want you to submit a handful of budgets for your team. Instead, they are looking for you to turn in one single budget – a master budget if you will. This means that once you have the budgets for all of your individual projects, you need to combine them into a single budget that incorporates the funding, resources, and returns that all of your projects will require.

Your budget will summarize the financial projectionsof all of your team’s individual projects during a given period. This means that the budget will need to incorporate both your operating budget as well as your financial budget.

3 Questions To Ask About Your Next Master Budget

If combining the numbers that you’ve created for your individual budgets was all that was required in order to create a budget, then you could turn it all over the finance department and be done with it. However, as with all important things in life, it’s not this easy.

When you submit your master budget to the powers that will eventually grant you funding with which to accomplish all of the great things that you and your IT dream team want to accomplish in the upcoming year, it will be reviewed. This means that you have an additional step that must be performed before you turn your master budget in.

There are three questions that every IT manager must ask about their master budget before they submit it to their senior management for final review and funding approval:

Alignment?: In IT we talk a lot about aligning the work that we do with what the rest of the company is trying to accomplish. These are fine words, but they really take on a great deal of meaning when we are dealing with budgets. As an IT manager, you need to review your master budget and determine if the projects that you are trying to get funded will fit in with the larger strategic goals of the company.

Resources?: There’s an old phrase that says that you can’t get blood from a stone. What this means for IT managers is that before you turn in your master budget you need to determine if the company has the resources (including cash) to fund your master budget. If you are asking for US$100M and the company only has $10M to spend, then things aren’t going to work out.

Value?: You are proposing that the company fund your IT team to do some work. The big question here is if it is going to be worth it for the company. Will the work that your team performs generate enough value for the company to allow it to achieve its goals?
What All Of This Means For You

Every IT manager is asked to create a budget at some point in time – generally on a yearly basis. This can be a challenging task that takes up a lot of your time. However, it doesn’t have to.

You need to understand what a master budget is. It is a single budget that brings together all of the individual budgets that you’ve created for the various projects that your IT team will be working on in the future. This single budget needs to align with the company’s goals, identify the resources that you’ll need, and determine if you’ll create enough value to make it all worth your while.

Taking the time to create a master budget is one of the core responsibilities of an IT manager. Using the divide-and-conquer strategy for building the budget while answering the 3 questions that we’ve identified will ensure that your next master budget will be right on the money.

Why Are Personal and Family Budgets So Important?

  • March 18, 2019

Personal/ Family budgets, or spending plans, are tools that can help you meet your financial goals. The process of building a budget can help you to take a hard look at your priorities and to determine whether you’re on track to reaching your financial goals.

A budget is a list of expenses and income. It is the amounts of money that currently comes in and out each month/year. It is also the projected in and out amounts of each month/year.

Displaying anticipated income and expenses allows for a prioritization of expenses, like making mortgage or loan payments before spending money on entertainment and travel. A projected budget provides a framework for making decisions about expenses, such as cancelling premium cable services or to saving money for a new auto-mobile. A budget allows you to monitor how close you are to your goals. This knowledge can help you to create budget plans that connect with your daily habits.

The budgeting process is designed to be flexible; and you should have an expectation that a budget will change from month to month, and will require ongoing monthly review. Expense overruns in one category of a budget should in the next month be accounted for or prevented. For example, if you or your family spends $50 more than planned on groceries, next month’s budget should reflect a$50 increase and decreases of $50 in other parts of their budget.

Precautions need to be taken for budgeting on an irregular income. Budgets with irregular income should keep two things in mind: spending more than your average income, and running out of money even when your income is on average.

A budget needs to estimate your average (yearly) income. Spending, which will be relatively constant, needs to be maintained below that amount. A budget should allow for error and so keeping expenses 5% or 10% below the estimated income is a conservative approach. When done correctly, your budget should end any given year with about 5% of their income left over. Of course being conservative and having more than 5% is never a bad idea.

To avoid running out of money because expenses occur before the money actually arrives a “safety cushion” of excess cash (to cover those months when actual income is below estimations) should be implemented. There is no easy way to develop a safety cushion, so you will have to spend less you earn. Developing a cushion can be a challenging particularly when starting during a low spot in your earning cycle, although this is how most budgets begin. In general, personal and family budgets that start out with expenses that are 5% or 10% below your average income and should slowly develop a cushion of savings that can be accessed when earnings are below average. Whether this rate of building your cushion cushion is fast enough depends upon on how variable your income is, and whether the budgeting process starts at a high or low point during the earnings cycles.

Below are tips on how to create a personal budget

Budgeting 101

Why a budget is so important? It seems like creating a budget is just a tedious exercise, especially if you feel your finances are already in good working order. But you would be surprised how valuable a budget is. A budget can help keep your spending on track and uncover hidden cash flow problems that could free up more money to put toward your other financial goals.

How to Create a Budget?

The hardest part of creating a budget is creating one. It’s like staring at a blank piece of paper when you need to write something, the first step is the hardest part.

Tips for Budgeting Success

Once you’ve taken the time to create a budget it’s time to follow it. You can have the best of intentions of following a budget, but after a few weeks or months you drift away from your plan. Don’t let that happen to you. Here are a few basic tips that will ensure your budget is a success.